Glossary: D

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D/A - Documents Against Acceptance. Instructions from a shipper to his bank that the documents attached to a time draft for collection are deliverable to the draw only against his acceptance of the draft.

Date - All recorded information, regardless of form or characteristic, delivered under this contract.

D.B.A. - Abbreviation for Doing Business As. A legal term for conducting business under a registered name.

DDC - Acronym for Destination Delivery Charge. Charges based on the size of the container, which are applied in many tariffs to cargo. These charges are considered accessorial and are added to the base ocean freight. These charges covers crane lifts off vessels, drayage of containers within the terminal and gate fees at the terminal operation.

D & H - Acronym for Dangerous and Hazardous cargo.

D/P -Documents Against Payment - Instruction a shipper gives to his band that the documents attached to a draft for collection are deliverable to the drawee only against his payment of the draft.

DOT - Department of Transportation

Dangerous Goods - Articles or substances capable of posing a significant risk to health, safety or property, and that ordinarily require special attention when transported.

Date Draft - Adraft that matures in a specified number of days after the date it is issued, without regard to the date of acceptance. See "Draft", "Sight Draft" and/or "Time Draft".

Dead-Head - A trip with a empty vehicle, vessel, container etc.

Deadweight Cargo - A long ton of cargo that can be stowed in less than 70 cubic feet.

Deadweight Tonnage (DIW) - The number of tons of 2,240 pounds that a vessel can transport of cargo, stores and bunker fuel. It is the difference between the number of tons of water a vessel displaces "light" and the number of tons it displaces when submerged to the "load line".

Deck Cargo - Cargo Carried outside rather than within the enclosed cargo spaces of the vessel.

Declared Valuation - The value of goods, as stated by a shipper, when tendered to a carrier.

Declared Value for Carriage - The value of goods declared to the carrier by the shipper for the purposes of determining charges, or of establishing the limit of the carrier's liability for loss, damage, or delay.

Declared Value for Customs - The selling price of a shipment or the replacement cost if shipment is not for resale. The amount must be equal to or greater than the declared value.

Deconsolidation Point - Place where loose or other non-containerized cargo is ungrouped for delivery.

Defense Business Operations Fund (DBOF) - Now the Working Capital fund (WCF), a revolving industrial fund concept for a large number of defense support functions, including transportation.

Defense Business Operations Fund - Transportation (DBOF-T) - Now the Transportation Working Capital Fund (TWCF), DBOF-T was the USTRANSCOM portion of the DBOF transportation  business area.

Defense Courier Service (DCS) - A direct reporting unit under USTRANSCOM that establishes, staffs, operates and maintains an international network of couriers and courier stations for the expeditious, cost-effective and secure transmission of qualified classified documents and material. It is headquartered at Ft. Meade, Maryland.

Defense Freight Railway Interchange Fleet (DFRIF) - A fleet of freight cars built and maintained to the standards established by the Association of American Railroads (AAR) and the Department of Transportation (DOT). These cars are suitable for shipping DOD cargo over the commercial railroad system throughout North America, including Alaska, Canada, and Mexico.

Defense Transportation System (DTS) - That portion of the worldwide transportation infrastructure which supports DOD transportation needs in peace and war. The DTS consists of those military and commercial assets, services and systems organic to, contracted for, or controlled by the Department of Defense.

Defense Transportation Tracking System (DTTS) - A computer-based system located at the Navel Transportation Center in Norfolk, Virginia.  The center is manned 24 hours a day and is used to maintain in-transit visibility of carrier vehicles transporting shipments of munitions and other hazardous material.

Deferred Payment Letter of Credit - A type of letter of credit providing for payment at a fixed time after the presentation of shipping documents by the exporter.

Deficit Weight - The weight by which a shipment is less than the minimum weight.

Delay - Even under All Risk coverage, damage due to delay is not recoverable . Most underwriters have inserted a "Delay Clause" in the Open Cargo Policy, which states specifically that damage caused by delay is not recoverable even if the delay was due to a peril insured against.

Delivery Instructions - Order to pick-up goods at an in-transit (temporary) terminal and delivers them to a pier.  Usually issued by exporter to trucker but may apply to a railroad, which completes delivery by land.  Use is limited to a few major U.S. ports. Also known as shipping delivery order.

Delivered Pricing - The price from the seller to buyer which includes delivery to buyer.

Delivery Instructions - Provides specific information to the inland carrier concerning the arrangement made by the forwarder to deliver the merchandise to a particular ocean pier or airport. Used in the export trade.

Demand Draft - See "Sight Draft."

Demurrage -In Domestic U.S. Transportation: A penalty charge against shippers or consignees for delaying the carrier's equipment beyond the allowed free time provision of the tariff at rail ramp. In International Transportation: A storage charge to shippers which starts accruing after a container is discharged from a vessel.  The charge varies according to rules of the appropriate tariff.

Density - The weight of an article per cubic foot. The ratio of mass to bulk or volume.

Denton Amendment Cargo - Humanitarian cargo donated by private citizens or organizations that may move on a space available basis within the DTS.

Department of Defense (DOD) aircraft - An aircraft owned or controlled by an DOD activity or component,  includes planes chartered or leased for period's grater than 90 days.

Department of Defense Activity Address Code (DODAAC) - A distinct six-position alphanumeric code assigned to identify specific units, activities, or organizations as found in DOD Activity Address Directory (DODAAD).

Department of Defense Actifity Address Directory (DODAAD) - Publication that lists all DOD activities and their six-position alphanumeric codes called DODAAC's

Department of Transportation  (DOT) cars - These cars are suitable for shipping DOD cargo over the commercial railroad system throughout  North America,  including Alaska,  Canada, and Mexico.

Depot, Container - Container freight station or a designated area where empty containers can be picked up or dropped off.

Deregulation - Revisions or complete elimination of economic regulations controlling transportation. The Motor Carrier Act of 1980 and the Staggers Rail Act of 1980 revised the economic controls over motor carriers and railroads while the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 will eventually eliminate economic controls over air carriers.

Derived Demand - The demand for transportation of a product is derived for the demand for the product at some location.

Desiccant - Material that absorbs moisture by physical/chemical action e.g. calcium chloride; desiccants are included in packages to keep contents from suffering moisture damage.

Descrimination - Difference in rates not justified by costs; e.g. two shipments move under same circumstances but for different charges.

Destination - The place to which a shipment is consigned or the place where the carrier actually turns over cargo to consignee or his agent.

Destination Control Statement -Any of various statements the U.S. government requires to be displayed on export shipments that specify the destinations for which the export shipment has been authorized.

Destination Station - A base or airport where the mission ends.

Detention - A charge made for a vehicle or container held for a shipper or consignee for loading or unloading, for forwarding directions or for any other purpose.

Devaluation - The official lowering of the value of one country's currency in terms of on or more foreign currencies--e.g. If the U.S. Dollar is devalued in relation to the French franc, one dollar will "buy" fewer francs than before.

Devanning - The discharging or unloading of cargo from a container or cargo van.

Developed Countries - A term used to distinguish the advanced industrial countries, including OECD countries and most Eastern European countries.

Developing Counties and Lesser Developed Countries (LDC) - A broad range of countries which generally lack a high degree of industrialization, infrastructure and other advanced capital investment, sophisticated technology, widespread literacy and advanced living standards among their populations.

DF Car - Damage-Free Car. Boxcars equipped with special bracing materials .

Differential - An amount added or deducted from the base rate to make a rate to or from some other point or via different route.

Discrepancy-Letter of Credit - When documents presented do not conform to the letter of credit, or are inconsistent with the terms, it is also referred to as a "discrepancy".

Dislocation Allowance (DLA) - DLA is provided to both single service members and those with dependents to assist in defraying some of the out-of-pocket, miscellaneous costs associated with moving. DLA is paid in a lump sum based on rank and dependency status.

Dispatch - An amount paid by a vessel's operator to a charterer if loading or unloading is completed in less time than stipulated by the charter party.

Displacement - The weight, in tons of 2,240 pounds, of the vessel and its content. Calculated by dividing the volume of water displaced in cubic feet by 35, the average density of seawater.

Disqualification - Action taken by MTMC or theater CINC resulting in the exclusion of a carrier from transporting DOD shipments from one or more origin points for specific routes or for all routes.

Distribution Export License - A license, which permits the multiple shipment of commodities under a single license to, qualified foreign consignees.

Distributor - Foreign agent who sells for a supplier directly and maintains an inventory of the supplier's products.

Diversion - A change made in the routing of a shipment while in transit (see Reconsignment) or of the entire ship.

Division - Carriers' practice of dividing revenue received from through rates where joint hauls are involved. This is usually according to agreed formulae.

Do It Yourself (DITY) Move - A move in which the service member completes aspects of the move without government transportation assistance. There are different types of DITY moves that range from a partial DITY move, in which the government provides some assistance, to a complete DITY move, in which the service member completes every aspect of the move without government assistance. Financial reimbursement is given for DITY moves according to established military guidelines.

Dock - For ships, a cargo handling area parallel to the shoreline.  In land transportation, a loading or unloading platform at an industrial location or carrier terminal.

Dock Receipt - Receipt issued by an ocean carrier or its agent for merchandise delivered at its dock or warehouse awaiting shipment.

Docket - Present a rate proposal to a conference meeting for adoption as a conference group rate.

Documentary Collection - A method of effecting payment for the goods whereby the seller/exporter ships goods to the buyer, but instructs his/her bank to collect a certain sum fro the buyer/importer in exchange for the transfer of title, shipping and other documentation.

Documentary Credit - A commercial letter of credit providing for payment by a bank to the named beneficiary usually the seller of the merchandise, against delivery documents specified in the letter of credit.

Documentary Draft - A draft to which documents are attached.

Documents - Papers customarily attached to foreign drafts, consisting of ocean bills of lading, marine insurance certificates, and commercial invoices, and when required, including certificates of origin and consular invoices.

Documents Against Acceptance – See D/A

Documents Against Payment - See D/P

DOD - Department of Defense

Dolly - A set of wheels that support the front of a container; used when the automotive unit is disconnected.

Door-to-Door (DTD) - Through transportation of a container and its contents from consignor to consignee, also known as a House-to-House. Not necessarily a through rate. In HHG, it generally refers to the transportation of the customer's belongings the place of origin to the customer's new place of residence.

DOT - Department of Transportation.

Draft, Clean - A draft to which no documents are attached.

Draft, Date - A draft that matures on a fixed date, regardless of the time of acceptance.

Draft, Discount - A time draft under a letter of credit that has been accepted and purchased by a bank at a discount.

Draft, Financial - A buyer's payment for goods, usually through an intermediary bank. Normally, bank drafts are negotiable instruments and are similar in many ways to checks on checking accounts in a bank.

Draft, Maritime - The difference in feet between the water level and the vessel's keel. Draft, Sight -A draft payable on demand upon presentation.

Draft, Time - A draft that matures at a fixed or determinable time after presentation or acceptance.

Drawback - Import Duties or taxes repaid by a government, in whole or part, when the imported goods are re-exported or used in the manufacture of exported goods.

Drawee - The individual or firm on whom a draft is drawn and who owes the stated amount. Compare with "Drawer" and "Draft".

Drawer - The individual or firm that issues or signs a draft and thus stands to receive payment of the stated amount from the drawee. Compare with "Drawee and "Draft".

Drayage - Charges made for local hauling by dray or truck. Same as Cartage.

DRFS - An acronym that stands for Destination Rail Station. Same as CFS at destination, except a DRFS is operated by the rail carrier participating in the shipment.

Dry Cargo - Cargo that does not require temperature control.

Dry-Bulk Container - A container constructed to carry grain, powder and other free-flowing solids in bulk. Used in conjunction with tilt chassis or platform.

DST - The acronym meaning "Double Stack Train" service, which is the transport by rail between two points of a trainload or containers with two containers, one on top of the other, per chassis.

Dual Operation - A motor carrier that has both common and contract carrier operating authority.

Dual Rate System - An international water carrier pricing system where a shipper signing an exclusive-use agreement with the conference pays a lower rate (10 to 15 percent less) that non-signing shippers for an identical shipment.

Dual Use Item - A product which has both commercial and military applications.

Dumping - Exporting merchandise to a country below the costs incurred in production and shipment. Dumping is considered an unfair trade practice, which can disrupt markets and injure manufacturers in the importing countries.

Dunnage - The material used to protect or support cargo in or on trucks, containers, railcars, or vessels.

Duty - (a) ad valorem duty means an accessed amount at a certain percentage rate on the monetary value of an import. (b) Specific duty; an assessment on the weight or quantity of an article without preference to its monetary value or market place. (c) Drawback: a recovery in whole or in part of duty paid on imported merchandise at the time of exportation, in the same or different form.

DWT-Deadweight Tons - The payload to a specified draft of a ship. It is a common measure of a ship's carrying capacity.