Glossary: A

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AAR - Abbreviation for Against All Risk (insurance clause) or Association of American Railroads

Abaft -A point beyond the midpoint of a ships length, toward the rear or stem.

Abandonment - 1) Proceeding where a carrier seeks authorization to stop service over all or part of its route line or to give up ownership/control of cargo or vessel. 2) Shipper or consignee seeks authority to abandon all of parts of their cargo. 3) In marine insurance giving up title to partly destroyed property to the issuers. 4) The act of relinquishing title to damaged or lost property in order to claim a total loss.

Abatement - A discount allowed for damage or overcharge in the payment of a bill.

ABI - U.S. Customs' Automated Broker Interface, by which brokers file importers' entries electronically.

Aboard - Referring to cargo being put, or laden, onto a means of conveyance.

Absorption - One carrier assumes the charges of another without any increase in charges to the shipper.

About - In connection with letter of credit, "about" means a tolerance of plus/minus 10 percent regarding the letter of credit value, unit price or the quantity of the goods.

Absolute Liability - Condition in which carrier is responsible for all liability and is not protected by the normal exemptions found in bill of lading or common law liability.

Abstract - Abridgement of evidence omitting nonessential items, used especially in regulatory proceedings.

Acceptance - A draft payable at a determinable future date upon face of which drawee acknowledges his/her obligation to pay it at maturity. (Broadly speaking, any agreement to purchase goods under specific terms. An agreement to purchase goods at a stated price, at stated time and with stated terms.

Acceptance Letter of Credit - A letter of credit, which, in addition to other required documents, requires presentation of a term draft drawn on the bank, nominated as the accepting bank under the letter of credit.

Access - Basically, how accessible is the property? The room to park a vehicle, the distance from vehicle to front door, the availability of lifts, how many floors the building has, and so on, all have an influence on access.

Accessorial Charges - Charges for supplementary services and privileges provided in connection with line-haul transportation of goods. These charges are not included in the freight charges and usually taken the form of a flat fee. Some examples are pickup/delivery, in-transit privileges, demurrage, switching, loading/unloading, weighting, storage, inspection, grading, repacking, billing and fabrication.

Accessorial Service - A service offered by a carrier in addition to the transportation of goods, for example, stopping in transit to complete loading or to unload partially or storage charges.

Account Party - The party that instructs a bank (issuing bank) to open a letter of credit. The account party is usually the buyer or importer.

Acquiescence - When a bill of lading is accepted or signed by a shipper or shipper's agent without protest, the shipper is said to acquiesce to the terms, giving a silent form of consent.

Acquittance - A written receipt in full, in discharge from all claims.

ACS - U.S. Customs' master computer system, "Automated Commercial System".

Acts of God - A natural event, not preventable by human act, such as flood, storms or lightning. Forces of nature that a carrier has no control over, and therefore cannot be held accountable.

Act of Man - In water transportation, the deliberate sacrifice of cargo to make the vessel safe for the remaining cargo. Those sharing in the spared cargo proportionally cover the loss.

Actual Gross Weight - The sum of the container weight, tractor pulling it, and the payload contained in it.

Actual Payload - Actual weight of commodity being transported (actual gross weight minus tare weight.).

Actual Value Rate -A rate based on the actual value of the material shipped.

Ad Hoc - Latin phrase meaning "of this." In business used to indicate a single end or purpose, a one­time application, e.g. an ad hoc investigating committee.

Administrative Law Judge - A representative of a government commission or agency vested with power to administer oaths, examine witnesses, take testimony, and conduct hearings of cases submitted to, or initiated by that agency. Also called Hearing Examiner.

Admiralty (Adm.) - Refers to marine matters such as an Admiralty Court.

Ad Valorem - A term from Latin meaning "according to value". Also see "Duty".

Ad Valorem Tariff - A tariff calculated as a percentage of the value of goods cleared through customs.

Advance - To move cargo up-line to a vessel leaving sooner than the one booked. (See "Roll.")

Advanced Charges - The amount of freight or other charges on a shipment advanced by one transportation line to another, or to the shipper to be collected from consignee.

Advance Against Collection -A short-term loan or credit extended to the seller (usually the exporter) by the seller's bank once a draft has been accepted by the buyer (generally the importer) of the seller's goods.

Advance Against Documents -A loan made on the security of the documents covering the shipment.

Advance Freight - Partial payment of the bill of lading freight in advance; in other respects the same as guaranteed freight.

Advance Pay - This allowance is sometimes approved to cover extraordinary expenses associated with a permanent change of station (PCS) move.  The service member must apply to his or her commander for approval for this advance.  If approved, the Service member is typically required to pay it back within twelve months.  It will be deducted from the Service member's paycheck over this period of time.  Advance pay of Basic Allowance for Housing and Overseas Housing Allowance are also possible, upon approval.

Adventure - Shipment of goods on shipper's own account. A bill of adventure is a document signed by the master of the ship that carries goods at owner's risk.

Advice of Shipment - Notice to local or foreign buyer that shipment has occurred with details of packing, routing and a copy of an invoice is usually enclose and sometimes a copy of the bill of lading.

Advice - The forwarding of a letter of credit, or an amendment to a letter of credit to the seller, by the advising bank (seller's bank).

Advising Bank - The bank that receives a letter of credit or amendment to a letter of credit from the issuing bank (the buyer's bank) 'and forwards it to the beneficiary (seller/exporter) of the credit.

Advisory Capacity - A term indicating that a shipper's agent or representative is not empowered to make definitive decisions or adjustments without the approval of the group or individual represented.

Aerial Port - An airfield that has been designated for sustained air movement of personnel and material to serve as an authorized port of entry or departure to or from the country where located.

Affidavit - Written statement that must be witnessed and sworn to before a notary public or other officer who has authority to administer oaths or affirmations.

Affreightment, Contract of - An agreement by an ocean carrier to provide cargo space on a vessel at a specified time and for a specified price to accommodate and exporter or importer.

Afloat - Commodities underway in water transit, actually aboard vessel either at sea or in port but not yet unloaded.

Aft - Movement toward the stern (back end) of a ship.

After Date - A notation on financial instruments (such as drafts or bills of exchange) to fix the maturity date as a fixed number of days past the date of drawing of the draft.

After Sight - A notation on a draft that indicates that payment is due a fixed number of days after the draft has been presented to the drawee.

Agency -A relationship between one individual or legal entity (the agent) that represents, acts on behalf of, and binds another individual or legal entity (the principal) in accordance with the principal's request or instruction.

Agency Tariff - A tariff published by an agent on behalf of several carriers.

Agent -Usually another moving company appointed to act as a partner in your move. The most likely situation is that your mover will appoint someone at destination to receive your shipment, clear it through customs and arrange final delivery. The agent's services will be included in your quotation. Also see "Foreign Sales Agent".

Aggregate Shipments - Numerous shipments from different shippers to one consignee that are consolidated and treated as a single consignment.

Agreed Value - The value of a shipment agreed upon in order to secure a specific freight rate.

Agreed Weight - The weight prescribed by agreement between carrier and shipper for goods shipped in certain packages or in certain numbers.

A.I.D. -Agency for International Development.

Air Waybill - A bill of lading that covers both domestic and international flights transporting goods to a specified destination. This is a non-negotiable instrument of air transport, which serves as a receipt for the shipper, indicating the carrier has accepted the goods listed and is obligated to carry the consignment to the airport of destination according to specific instructions.

Air Mobility Command (AMC) - An Air Force major command and United States Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM). An Air Force component command responsible for Department of Defense (DOD) strategic airlift and aerial refueling.

All-ln - The total price to move a container from origin to destination, inclusive of all charges.

All-Risk Insurance - The broadest form of insurance coverage of cargo, including coverage due to internal causes such as fire, collision, pilferage etc., but usually excluding "special" risk such as those resulting from acts of war, labor strike, the perishing of goods, and internal damage due to faulty packing, decay or loss of market.

All-Commodity Rate - Usually a carload/truck load rate applicable to multiple shipments which move at one time in one vehicle from the consignee; also as "freight-all-kinds" or FAK rates an all-commodity rate is established based on actual transportation cost rather than "Value of Service".

Allowance - A sum granted as reimbursement or repayment, or a deduction from the gross weight or value of the goods.

Alongside - A phrase referring to the side of the ship. Goods to be delivered 'alongside' are to be placed within reach of transport ships’ tackle so they can be loaded aboard the ship.

Alternative Rates - Two or more rates, of which the one that produces the lowest charges is applicable.

Ambient Temperature - The temperature of a surrounding body. The ambient temperature of a container is the atmospheric temperature to which it is exposed.

American Bureau of Shipping- U.S. classification society that certifies seagoing vessels for compliance to standardized rules regarding construction and maintenance.

AMS- The U.S. Customs' "Automated Manifest System."

AMSA -American Moving and Storage Association

Antidiversion Clause - See "Destination Control Statement"

Anti-Dumping Duty - A tariff imposed to discourage sale of foreign goods, subsidized to sell at low prices detrimental to local manufacturers.

Any Quantity Rate - Arate applicable to an article regardless of how much will be transported.

Apparent Good Order - Freight appears to be free of damage so far as a general survey can determine.

Application of Rates - The points from and to, or between which rates and routes shown in the publication, pricing agreement or customer contract applies.

Appraisement - Determination of the dutiable value of imported merchandise by a Customs official who follows procedures outlined in their country's tariff, such as the U.S. Tariff Act of 1930.

Appraiser's Stores - The warehouse or public stores to which samples of imported goods are taken to be inspected, analyzed, weighed, etc. by examiners or appraisers.

Arbitrage - The buying of foreign exchange, securities, or commodities in one market and the simultaneous selling in another market, in terms of a third market. By this manipulation, a profit is made because of the difference in the rates of exchange or in the price of the securities or commodities involved.

Arbitrar - 1) Charges in addition to regular freight charge to compensate for unusual local conditions. 2) Fixed amount accepted by a carrier when dividing joint rates.

Arbitrary - A stated amount over a fixed rate to one point to make a rate to another point.

Arrival Notice - A notice, furnished to the consignee, announcing the arrival of the cargo.

ASC X12 -American Standards Committee X12 responsible for developing EDI standards for the U.S.

As Customary - In a contract, this refers to the usual manner of performing a service without a time period specified.

AS/AI -Term indicating the goods offered are without warranty/guarantee, purchaser has no recourse on vendor. for quality of the merchandise.

Asian Dollars -United States dollars deposited in Asia and the Pacific Rim. Compare with Eurodollars.

Assignment - A term commonly used in connection with a bill of lading. It involves the transfer of rights, title and interest in order to assign goods by endorsing the bill of lading.

Association of American Railroads - A railroad industry association that represents the larger U.S. railroads.

Astern - 1) Behind a vessel. 2) Move in reverse direction.

Astray Freight - Cargo bearing markings indicating origin and destination but separated from the waybill.

ATA -American Trucking Association.

ATA Carnet - An acronym that stands for the combined French and English words "Admission Temporair/Temporary Admission.” An ATA Garnet is an international customs document which may be used for the temporary duty-free admission of certain goods into a country in lieu of the usual customs documents required. The document is designed to serve as a guarantee against the payment of customs duties.

Athwartship - A direction across the beam of a vessel.

Audit Trail - Path generated by fully processed business transactions, including original entry, transaction listing, file posting and report. Management controls the document acceptance, handling and movement of materials through a warehouse. Verifying summary account balances by analyzing/inspection of underlying source documents and transaction records.

Authority - Operating right granted by a motor carrier by the interstate Commerce Commission.

Authorized Carrier - Person/company authorized by the ICC to engage in the transportation of property as a common or contract carrier.

Automated Broker Interface (ABI) - An electronic system allowing customhouse brokers and importers to interface via computer with the U.S. Customs Service for transmitting entry and entry summary data on imported merchandise.

Automated Commercial Systems (ACS) - The electronic system of the U.S. Customs Service, encompassing a variety of industry sectors, that permits on-line access to information in selected areas.

Automated Manifest System (AMS) - The electronic system allowing manifest inventory to be transmitted to the U.S. Customs Service data center by carrier, port authority or service center computers.

Aval - Payment of a bill of exchange, which is the responsibility of the drawee, can be either completely or partially guaranteed via an aval (join and several guarantee), where the guarantor places his/her signature on the draft either alone or with corresponding explanation "per aval" or "as guarantor''.

Average - Any loss or damage due to insured perils that is less than total loss. Two types of average occur: Particular Average and General Average.

Avoirdupois Pound - Same as 0.4535924277 kilograms.

Axle Load - Maximum load permitted to be carried on each axle of a motor vehicle.

Axel Ratings - Rear axles on a truck generally carry three ratings: carry capacity rated at the ground (gaw rating) total weight the axel is capable of carrying/pulling in service, gross combined weight (gaw rating) the maximum horsepower limit the axle is capable of carrying in normal service (engine size rating).

Axle Weight - Amount of weight carried by one axle of a tractor or trailer.